Albuterol Part 2

albuterol
Click the image above to view Albuterol in our store

Albuterol and the Spine

There has also been scientific study on animal test subjects pertaining to Albuterol’s relationship with the spine. Specifically, these studies have honed in on the catalog chemical’s potential ability to treat a condition that is known as spinal muscular atrophy. This particular condition, which is also known as SMA, is an automsomal recessive disease that stems from a genetic defect in the gene which is vital for the survival of motor neurons. This mutation causes a decreased or total loss of function of neuronal cells within the anterior horn of the animal test subject’s spinal cord. This in turn cases the degradation of the muscular system, since the method in which muscular function can achieve a level of homeostasis is diminished. Research hypothesizes that the presence of the catalog chemical could allow for an increased proliferation of the particular protein whose secretion helps to regulate the functionality of the motor neurons.

Because of the way that Albuterol has been shown to increase production of the protein responsible for motor neuron regulation, it is thought that the catalog chemical could also be beneficial in combating the condition known as muscle wasting. This condition, which is also known as muscle atrophy, is in essence the end manifestation of spinal muscular atrophy; that is, it is defined by the loss of muscle mass throughout the body. It is a condition that, when in full effect, could be marked by the partial or total wasting away of a muscle. It is thought that albuterol’s ability to potentially prevent the process of spinal muscular atrophy from occurring could stem the tide of overall muscle wasting from occurring within an animal test subject’s body.

Albuterol and Cystic Fibrosis

Since there has been a host of scientific study on animal test subjects regarding Albuterol’s ability to regulate breathing and its use as a breathing aid, further scientific study has turned to the catalog chemical’s association with the disease known as cystic fibrosis. This particular condition, which is also known as mucovisidosis, is an autosomal recessive disorder that has been shown to negatively affect the lungs along with the following organs:

  • The pancreas
  • The liver
  • The kidneys
  • The intestines

The disease itself is caused by a mutation in both copies of the gene pertaining to the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR). It manifests itself within the body via various conditions that are related to breath-related issues, such as difficulty breathing or respiratory infections that lead to coughing up excessive amounts of sputum. Other non-respiratory conditions have also been linked to the disease, including clubbing of digits, poor growth, fatty stool, and infertility. Ultimately, the disease truncates the lifespan of the subject with the disease, mostly due to lung problems.

It is thought that Albuterol’s ability to promote a higher level of breathing-related homeostasis within the animal test subject could enable it to be an effective tool to help circumvent some of issues that are caused by cystic fibrosis.  This in turn could allow the animal test subject become closer to achieving a sense of normalcy when it comes to the overall breathing process.

Albuterol and CMS

Additionally, it is also been determined via scientific study on animal test subjects that the catalog chemical could also be used to combat various subtypes of congenital myasehtenic syndromes. These conditions, collectively abbreviated as CMS, are inherited neuromuscular disorders that are created due to various defects at the neuromuscular junction, particularly those related to the cytoplasmic adaptor protein Dok-7. These conditions can manifest itself in various ways, such as droopy eyelids, weakness of the eye, mouth, and throat weakness, and developmental motor delays. It is thought that the presence of the catalog chemical can help to quell the effect of the mutated proteins within the animal test subject, thus allowing a more regulated and consistent neuromuscular process.

Side Effects of Albuterol

While scientific study based on animal test subjects have determined that Albuterol can be theoretically linked to various benefits relating to muscle and breathing regulation, studies have also determined that the catalog chemical could be linked to various side effects. The most common side effects are generally considered mild in nature and include anxiety, headache, fine tremor, dry mouth, muscle cramps and palpitations. Other symptoms may include disruptions of sleep, disruptions of behavior, arrhythmia, tachycardia, or flushing.  The catalog chemical has also been linked to other uncommon side effects such as paradoxical bronchospasm, angioedema, hypotension, and urticaria, although it should be noted that these particular negative side effects rarely occur.

Click here to read Albuterol Part 1

Click here to view / download PDF

Albuterol Part 1

albuterol
Click the image above to view Albuterol in our store

The catalog chemical Albuterol, also known as Salbutamol, is classified as a short-activing Beta 2adregenic agonist.  It has a molecular formula of C13H21NO3, and it has a molecular mass of 239.311.

The Functionality Behind Albuterol

According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, the primary means of Albuterol’s function is to work with the cell membrane’s beta-adernergic receptors.  The result of this interaction in essence causes the smooth muscles that are responsible for shepherding fine control and gradual responses to relax.  By means of this process, this enables the presence of the catalog chemical to play a role in executing various bodily reactions within animal test subjects that are linked to smooth muscle relaxation.  This would include reactions such as the widening of blood vessels within the liver and muscle, the release of insulin, the dilation of bronchial passages, and the relaxation of the uterine muscle in female animal test subjects.

In a nutshell, scientific study based on animal test subjects have determined that Albuterol works in this manner because it influences the lowering of intracellular calcium and myosin light chain kinase activity.  At the same time, it influences a boost in membrane potassium conductance.  These processes collectively work to trigger the relaxation of smooth muscles, particularly muscles that are linked to the process of breathing.  Ultimately, this allows for the process of bronchodilation, or an increased capacity for bronchial tubes, to occur.  This in turn allows the animal test subject to experience a more efficient means of achieving breathing-related homeostasis.

Albuterol and Breathing

Because of the way in which Albuterol works to regulate the breathing function, scientific study based on animal test subjects have determined several theoretical links between the presence of the catalog chemical and treatment of various breathing related issues.  Some of these conditions include:

  • Bronchospasm – This condition is demonstrated by a sudden constriction of the muscles within bronchial walls. This immediate constriction is brought about by the release of certain substances from cells due to the presence of anaphylatoxins.  It is thought that the presence of the catalog chemical could enable neutralize the effects of this condition because it causes a more efficient means of airflow to occur.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) – This condition, which is progressive in nature, is brought about by routinely poor airflow to the lung due to certain inflammatory responses. The result of this inflammation could range from shortness of breath to coughing.  It is theorized that the presence of Albuterol could lower the instances of inflammatory reactions.
  • Cystic Fibrosis – This progressive and, eventually, fatal condition is a genetic disorder whose presence causes various lung-related issues, including difficulty breathing. It is hypothesized that Albuterol’s functionality could slow down the onslaught of some of the breathing difficulties.

Albuterol and Obstetrics

Because of the way in which Albuterol works in conjunction with relaxing smooth muscle, scientific study based on animal test subjects has also determined that the presence of the catalog chemical could be instrumental in the treatment of certain obstetric-related issues.  The primary theory behind this correlation has to do with the concept of premature labor.  It is thought that because Albuterol ‘s functionality causes a relaxation of uterine smooth muscle in female animal test subjects, it could potentially be used to delay the onset of premature labor.  Ultimately, the presence of the catalog chemical could theoretically result in an offspring experiencing an increased presence in the animal test subject’s womb, which could in turn lead to an increased chance of entering the world in a healthy state.

Other Theoretic Uses for Albuterol

Scientific study based on animal test subjects have helped determine that Albuterol’s functionality could potentially be instrumental in treating other conditions.  For instance, it has been determined that the catalog chemical could be used to treat the condition of hyperklaemia through its ability to lower the potassium in the blood.  It could also be theoretically used to treat spinal muscular atrophy; a condition that is marked by muscle weakness and muscle wasting.

Click here to read Albuterol Part 2

Click here to view / download PDF

Sermorelin Part 2

buy sermorelin
Click the image above to view Sermorelin in our store

Sermorelin Presentation and Storage

Sermorelin is typically presented for scientific study in a sterile, non-pyrogenic powder which is lyophilized (that is, freeze-dried). The peptide itself is typically introduced to the animal test subject to the subject’s body fat. The peptide is also mixed with a soluble liquid (typically sodium chloride) to create a solution suitable for testing.

It is further recommended that when scientific study on animal test subject will commence that the test site is rotated on a periodic basis. It is also recommended that the peptide is administered to the animal test subject with a sterile, disposable syringe and needle. The syringe that is used should consist of a small enough volume that the recommended dosage for research be drawn from the vial that is shipped with a consistent amount of accuracy.

Upon recipt, the vials of Sermorellin should ideally be stored refrigerated at a temperature range of 2 degrees to -8 degrees Celsius, or a range of 36 degrees to -46 degrees Fahrenheit.

Sermorelin should not be administered if the following occurs in the solution:

  • If particles are visible
  • If the solution itself is cloudy

Observed Properties of Sermorelin

According to scientific study that has been built around animal test subjects, it has been determined that the peptide’s absorption properties were reached at a time interval of 5 to 20 minutes. During this time frame, it was determined that the peptide’s absolute biovailability was approximately 6 percent. It was also noted that the mean volume of distribution fell into a range between 23.7 and 25.8 liters.

A study on Sermorelin’s elimination properties have indicated that the peptide is cleared from the animal test subject’s circulation rather rapidly. This may be due to the fact that the peptide’s half-life is very short, as it was determined that it lasts only 11 to 12 minutes after it is presented to the animal test subject’s body.

Sermorelin Side Effects

According to scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects, it has been determined that a significant number of test subjects develop anti-GRF antibodies at least once during the treatment phase. It has yet to be determined what the significance of these developed antibodies play, and it is oftentimes shown that a positive test of one growth assessment will become negative by the next assessment interval. With that being said, it has been thought that the antibodies do not appear to have an adverse effect on growth, nor do they appear to have a relation to a specific adverse reaction profile.

And while there has not been a generalized allergic reaction to Sermorelin reported through study of the animal test subjects, it is thought that the most common treatment-based adverse effect is a local reaction that is characterized by pain, swelling, or redness. It has been noted that this reaction typically occurs in about 1 in 6 animal test subjects.

Other side effects that have been observed through the usage of Sermorelin include headache, flushing, dizziness, somnolence, hyperactivity, dysphagia, and urticaria. When the peptide has been administered to an animal test subject, the reactions have also included nausea, vomiting, dysgeusia, tightness in the chest, and pallor. However, it should be noted that in the case of both instances of introduction, the side effects that have been present have been minor.

Precautions Before Utilizing Sermorelin

As is the case with other peptides, it is important to keep a few basic things in mind before utilizing Sermorelin on animal test subjects.

Firstly, it is always important to work with the highest level of purity possible. A diluted peptide will produce results with greater variance; if these results are part of a long-term study, this variance could ultimately compromise the research data. Secondly, it is always important to make sure that the exact quantity of Sermorelin is being ordered in order to accomplish the exact scope and goals of the project. Finally, it is important to ensure that detailed instructions regarding the peptide’s proper usage and storage is included. Taking his step eliminates any instance of guesswork regarding the peptide, its usage, or its functionality.

Click here to read Sermorelin Part 1

Click here to view / download PDF

Sermorelin Part 1

buy sermorelin
Click the image above to view Sermorelin in our store

Sermorelin, also occasionally known as Geref, is a 29-amino acid polypeptide that is considered to be the shortest fully functional fragment of GHRH.  It has a molecular mass of 3357.882, and it has a molecular formula of C149H246N44O42S.

Sermorelin at a Glance

According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, it has been determined that the primary functionality of Sermorelin correlates with the relationship that it possesses with the pituitary gland.  This is the pea-sized gland located at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain that is responsible for the regulation and control of a wide array of endocrine system-related processes, including growth, metabolism, temperature regulation, sex organ functionality, and more.

Scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that Sermorelin’s presence produces a stimulation of secretions related to muscular and skeletal tissue growth directly from the pituitary gland.  This boost in secretions allows an animal test subject to achieve homeostasis regarding its muscular and skeletal tissue on a more efficient basis.

It should be noted that because Sermorelin works directly with the pituitary gland when it comes to stimulating specific secretions, its functionality is a little different than other peptides that are classified as GHRH.  For instance, some peptides that land within the GHRH realm promote an increase in muscular and skeletal tissue growth by increasing the expression of IGF-1, or Insulin Growth Factor – 1, which is secreted by the liver.  However, Sermorelin produces a means of muscular and skeletal tissue growth promotion directly through pituitary gland stimulation via the binding of specific receptors.  The subsequent expressions that occur stem directly from the pituitary gland and not through a secondary agent.  This direct link causes the process to be regulated by negative feedback that correlates to the inhibitory neurohormone somatostatin.  Ultimately, this causation provides the animal test subject with a regulatory process that is more efficient and streamlined in nature.

Sermorelin and Functional Boosts

Because of the way in which Sermorelin operates in regards to the process of boosting the pituitary gland secretions that correlate to muscular and skeletal tissue growth, scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects has determined that the presence of the peptide could be responsible of a wide range of increased regulatory functions.

Some of these boosted functions include:

  • Muscle and skeletal tissue growth – because Sermorelin has been shown to be directly linked to an increase in secretions from the pituitary gland relating to muscular and skeletal tissue, it is thought that the process of muscular and skeletal tissue growth can occur on a far more efficient means.
  • Increased bone density – Because the presence of the peptide allows for a more efficient means of skeletal tissue growth, it is thought that the uptick in efficiency allows for bones to become stronger and sturdier. This could in turn make it easier for bones to withstand certain injuries such as breaks and fractures.
  • The reduction of body fat – Because of the way in which Sermorelin operates, it is thought that the peptide causes an increase in the overall efficiency of protein synthesis. This boost in the process could be potentially linked to a more efficient means of breaking down adipose tissue – that is, body fat – in order to keep up with the elevated process.  This not only could hypothetically lead to a burning off of excess body fat in animal test subjects, but it can also allow new adipose tissue to be burnt off quicker.
  • And improvement in deep sleep – It has been determined through scientific study based on animal test subjects that the processes that relate to the functionality of the pituitary gland occur during deep sleep. Because of this, it is thought that the presence of Sermorelin causes a more efficient means of achieving deep sleep, so that the animal test subject’s body may be able to have sufficient time to properly handle the boost in protein synthesis.

Click here to read Sermorelin Part 2

Click here to view / download PDF

MK-677 Part 2

mk-677
Click the image above to view MK-677 in our store

MK-677 and Frailty

Because of the way in which MK-677 has been shown to boost bone density in animal test subjects, there has been scientific study devoted to determining the catalog chemical’s role in hypothetically batting conditions pertaining to the condition of frailty. Specifically, study has been devoted to determining its usefulness in slowing the condition known as sarcopenia.

In essence, sarcopenia is defined as the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength that is linked to the process of aging. It is not considered a disease or a syndrome unto itself, but rather as a component of the frailty syndrome. Furthermore, sarcopenia can be split off from other body weakening issues like cachexia (that is, wasting syndrome) because those particular conditions are typically listed as secondary by-products of a more prominent underlying pathos, like cancer. It is thought that because of the way in which MK-677 can bring about a more efficient means of producing secretions – which could in turn promote a more efficient means of building up muscular and skeletal tissue – this action could counterbalance the effects of sarcopenia, thus allowing animal test subjects the ability to achieve skeletal muscle-based homeostasis for a longer period of time.

MK-677 and Other Secretogogues

Scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has determined that MK-677 has slightly different properties than other secretogogues such as GHRP-6. This determination was not always the case, as it was previously thought that it was indistinguishable in vitro and in vivo from a functionality standpoint. Yet it was determined after oral administration in animal test subjects, which activates the catalog chemical, it was significantly more efficacious than other secretogogues, putting forth a mean peak GH concentration of  22.1 μg/L based on an oral dosage of 25 mg.

MK-677 and Catabolism

Further scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has been done to determine MK-677’s linke to catabolism.  That is, the group of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units as a means to release energy.  Studies have indicated that typical dietary energy restrictions bring about an expected catabolic response in normal animal test subjects. The fact there is a loss of nitrogen involved in this process points to an association with a decrease in IGF-1 and a boost in other secretions that are related to growth. This has led to the notion that there may be growth secretion-related resistance, although it is not absolute because of the introduction to a secretogogue will cause a boost in IGF-1 and an uptick in nitrogen retention. Because MK-677’s ability to induce a higher rate of production in secretions such as IGF-1, it has been hypothesized that the presence of the catalog chemical could reverse the typical catabolic response that healthy animal test subjects would have in dietary energy restrictions.

By extension, these studies have suggested that the presence of the catalog chemical could also be an effective aid in treating various acute or chronic disease states that are linked to catabolism. Some of these conditions have been linked to deficiencies in terms of an animal test subject’s normal rate of growth and development.

Side Effects of MK-677

It has been determined that the most prominent side effect of MK-677 is an increase in appetite. This is to be expected, since the catalog chemical’s presence promotes an increase in the production of ghrelin, which in turn causes the feeling of hunger on a significantly more efficient basis. Yet in some respects, this may be difficult to view as an actual side effect. The intake of more food provides the fuel needed for the increase in IGF-1 that is created, which is also a by-product of MK-677’s presence. Yet theoretically, it could be feasible for an animal test subject to increase its food intake at a rate that is higher than the rate of IGF-1 that is being produced, which could in turn cause an increase in weight.

MK-677 and Sleep Patterns

It has also been determined through scientific study on animal test subjects that MK-677 could conceivably induce a more efficient means of inducing deep sleep. The rationale behind this is linked to the catalog chemical’s ability to increase the production of ghrelin and IGF-1. Because the production of these two secretions occur during a time in which the animal test subject achieves deep sleep, it is thought that a longer period of deep sleep is induced in order to provide a sufficient interval of time for the boost in secretions – and their ultimate functions – to occur.

Click here to read MK-677 Part 1

Click here to view / download PDF

MK-677 Part 1

mk-677
Click the image above to view MK-677 in our store

The catalog chemical chain MK-677 is a catalog chemical that occasionally goes by the name of Ibutamoren or L-163,191.  It is a secretogogue, meaning that it is a substance that triggers the secretion of a secondary substance.  Its molecular formula is C27H36N4O5S, and it has a molecular mass of 528.662.

MK-677 at a Glance

According to scientific studies based on animal test subjects, the chief function behind MK-677 is to boost the production increase of the following substances:

  • Ghrelin
  • IGF-1

Ghrelin is a self-regulated 28 amino acid chain that is primarily produced by the stomach, although it can also be secreted by the epsilon cells that are found within the pancreas.  The main function behind the secretion of ghrelin is to stimulate the sensation of being hungry.  The enzyme serves as a counter to the enzyme secretion leptin, which is produced to stimulate the sensation of being full.  The increase in the production of ghrelin can cause an animal test subject to want to consume more food, and it can allow this desire to eat to come through a more efficient means.  It can also mean that the animal test subject will experience a greater capacity to intake a greater amount of food in one setting.

IGF-1, on the other hand, is a secretion that is short for Insulin Growth Factor-1.  It is a protein that is secreted by the liver of animal test subjects. The relationship between ghrelin and IGF-1 is symbiotic.  As the animal test subject is given an increased capacity to consume more food for fuel because of the secretion of ghrelin, the secretion of IGF-1 allows the increased fuel that is converted to be distributed to muscular and skeletal cells on a more efficient basis.  Ultimately, this boost in protein synthesis that is caused by the increase of both ghrelin and IGF-1 as brought about by MK-677 allows the animal test subject to achieve a level of homeostasis on a substantially more efficient basis in terms of protein synthesis.

Theoretical Benefits Behind MK-677

Because of the way in which MK-677 works in conjunction with both ghrelin and IGF-1, scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that the presence of the catalog chemical could play a vital role in treating various conditions that are related to a disruption of protein synthesis homeostasis.

One of the chief treatments that have been studied relates to the concept of frailty amongst the elderly.  Because of the way in which MK-677 works to boost the production of IGF-1 – and how it can use a boost of ghrelin to cajole animal test subjects into consuming for food for fuel – it is thought that this more efficient means of producing muscular and skeletal tissue could allow the bones and muscles of elderly subjects to remain consistently strong.  It is also thought that it could counteract issues that are related to the degenerative loss of skeletal and muscle mass, such as sarcopenia.

Other scientific study based on animal test subjects has been able to hypothetically link the presence of MK-677 with a more efficient means of weight regulation.  Despite the fact that the presence of the catalog chemical encourages a greater consumption of more food, it has been shown that the protein synthesis that is linked to the increase in IGF-1 production causes the conversion of food into energy to happen on a more efficient basis.  Furthermore, this boosted process also allows the breaking down of adipose tissue – that is, body fat – to be broken down on a much more efficient basis.  Therefore, it is thought that the presence of MK-677 could make it easier for an animal test subject to retain a more efficient means of weight-related homeostasis.

Click here to read MK-677 Part 2

Click here to view / download PDF